Located at the Tuscan medieval village of Montecatini Val di Cecina, Caporciano copper mine dates back to prehistory and the Etruscan era. It reopened in the fifteenth century and in the nineteenth century it was for a time perhaps Europe’s most extensive copper mine, with 35.5 km of tunnels on ten levels. Extraction continued until 1907. Guided tours allow visitors to walk through the tunnels and see the 315-m deep Alfredo shaft dug in 1855, which was operated by a Cornish beam engine. The stone-built shaft tower contains parts of the winding gear. The director’s office is brought alive by the mining company’s original documents, payment registers and plans of the mines. There are also remains of processing buildings and some surviving timber ore-stamps. As well as seeing the museum, visitors can take organised walks that begin in the tunnels and end in Montecatini’s centre and the church of Santa Barbara, the patron saint of miners in many countries. The site is managed by the local authorities.