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Regional route Berlin | Germany

Berlin became an important city over the course of its industrialisation from the mid-19th century onwards, first with engineering and then with the electrical industry. Around the beginning of the 20th century, the city was at times the largest metropolis on the European continent and made economic, ... more

The Berlin Route of Industrial Heritage

Berlin became an important city over the course of its industrialisation from the mid-19th century onwards, first with engineering and then with the electrical industry. Around the beginning of the 20th century, the city was at times the largest metropolis on the European continent and made economic, technological and architectural history. In doing so, Berlin was not only a site of research, development and production, but also served as an “experimentation field” for new technologies. Public power supply and electrical transport systems were an example for the rest of the world. As an “electropolis”, Berlin became synonymous with a modern, interlinked city at the beginning of the 20th century and was considered a prototype for economic growth and success.

In comparison with London or Paris, Berlin still had a rather provincial character around the beginning of the 19th century. Its development into an important centre of trade and industry over the course of the 19th century was helped by a number of different factors. The Prussian Customs Law of 1818 abolished domestic trade barriers. At the same time as a rapid growth in population (1801: 172,988 inhabitants, 1849: 410,726 inhabitants), efficient systems of trade and supply became established. Rapid industrialisation began in approximately 1830. Iron foundries and engineering institutes, such as those of August Borsig, established themselves at the gates of the city. The chemical industry was also of importance, with individuals such as the pharmacist Ernst Schering. He had a pharmaceutical factory built in 1864 which was to become the main plant of the Schering group (now owned by Bayer Pharma AG).

Berlin’s promotion to the German Empire’s capital city after the Empire was founded in 1871 ultimately led to the economic boom of the “founder years”. Berlin became an important financial centre, where innovative spirit and enterprise encountered the necessary capital. The city also had a good public education system at its disposal, as well as engineering research expertise and skilled workers thanks to the technical college. Numerous new companies were founded. As the inner-city spaces were no longer adequate, production was increasingly transferred to the outskirts. A number of new residential areas sprang up around the industrial sites, with garden suburbs, housing developments and tenement housing appearing in equal measure.

The electrical and power industries became increasingly important. Werner von Siemens and Emil Rathenau were just two of the important characters in this development. Werner von Siemens established “Telegraphenbauanstalt Siemens & Halske” in 1847 together with Johann Georg Halske. This was to become Siemens AG, one of the world’s largest electronic companies, within just a few decades. Emil Rathenau acquired the rights to use the patents of Thomas Alva Edison in 1881. He established “Allgemeine Electricitäts-Gesellschaft” – AEG. Siemens and Rathenau furthered technological developments and research in the use of electricity and shared the market between them. Berlin became a testing ground. The first electric tram line was opened in Lichterfelde in 1881 and the first roads were lit with electric light from 1882 onwards. The city’s public power, water and transport services were a role model for the rest of the world. Berlin became synonymous with a modern, interlinked city in which technology and culture interacted closely. The cityscape and the inhabitants’ coexistence changed rapidly. In 1882, Mark Twain stated in the Chicago Daily Tribune that Berlin was the “newest city I have ever seen” and called Berlin “the European Chicago”.

The financial crisis known as the “Panic of 1873” interrupted the economic boom but did not end it. Rises in income continued until the beginning of the First World War in 1914. Berlin remained a leading light in the German electronics industry until the beginning of the Second World War, with approximately one third of all production capacities concentrated in the city. After 1945, great portions of the production plants were dismantled and taken to the Soviet Union. The partition of Germany led to numerous companies transferring production to West Germany and Berlin’s importance as an industrial metropolis waned.

Due to Berlin’s special status, a number of superb but also typical products of its industrial and technological history have survived. West Berlin’s situation as an exclave meant that the demand for modern production areas was lacking, and former industrial sites were often used by stakeholders from the cultural and creative scenes. In many cases, the historical industrial buildings in East Berlin were used for production until 1990. The importance of Berlin as an industrial metropolis can therefore still be seen in today’s cityscape, where heritage buildings and monuments to technology have been preserved in a way which is almost unique. This is primarily the case for products of the electro-technical revolution. Production continues in the turbine hall in Moabit, designed by Peter Behrens for AEG and considered by connoisseurs to be a milestone of industrial architecture. Several power distribution plants, such as substations and transformer stations, have shed their previous function due to technological progress. A large number of them accommodate new forms of use today. Art and culture, museums, restaurants, youth hostels, hotels and event locations now attract visitors to experience the special atmosphere of former industrial buildings.

Route of Industrial Heritage

Berlin’s Route of Industrial Heritage is under construction. It links locations which demonstrate the technological, economic and social history of the city.

The German Museum of Technology is the route’s Anchor Point. It offers a comprehensive overview of all aspects of the history of technology. The link between population growth and necessary infrastructure expansion becomes clear, for example, in the Museum im Alten Wasserwerk Friedrichshafen, located in an old water works. The Museum für Kommunikation tells the story of communication and the reciprocal effects between the development of technical resources and human interaction.

Great civic involvement enabled the preservation of important artefacts of Berlin’s industrial heritage in many cases and it also characterises many sites today, such as Energie-Museum Berlin and Industriesalon Schöneweide, a forum for industry, technology and culture, where interested visitors encounter knowledgeable protagonists with whom they can talk shop to their hearts’ content. Some of these sites can only be accessed with a guide orby advance registration. Please check the relevant website before your visit!

The Berliner Zentrum Industriekultur (BZI) is the coordinator of the route. It is a scientific institution at the University of Applied Sciences (HTW) Berlin and a cooperation project between the HTW and the German Museum of Technology Foundation. The map of industrial heritage offers an overview of the city’s rich industrial heritage in addition to sites on the Route of Industrial Heritage.


ERIH Anchor Points

Berlin | Germany
Lifeworld Ship”, “From Ballooning to the Berlin Airlift”, “Trains, Locomotives and People”: any technological developments that Berlin witnessed during the past 120 years are showcased in the capital's Deutsches Technikmuseum (German Museum of Technology). Greeting travellers from a distance there ...

German Technical Museum
Trebbiner Strasse 9
10963 Berlin, Germany

It is located in the middle of a residential area: the 75/76 forced labor camp in Berlin-Schöneweide. From June 1944, deported civilians from all over Europe lived here, as well as more than 400 Italian military internees and about 200 female concentration camp prisoners. Who were they, what did ...

Nazi Forced Labour Documentation Centre
Britzer Str. 5
12439 Berlin, Germany

Member Sites ERIH Association

The museum of communications in Berlin claims to be Europe’s oldest postal museum. The collection was established in 1872 by the postmaster of imperial Germany, Heinrich von Stephan (1831-97), who, in 1866, had been commissioned by the government of Prussia to establish a federal postal service, ...

Berlin Museum for Communication
Leipziger Strasse 16
10117 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
Brewhouse, warehouse, cooper’s workshop, horse stables, canteen and children’s home: the preserved complex of the historic Schultheiss Brewery clearly illustrates how a company that once ranked among the largest breweries in Europe was organized around 1900. The renovated industrial monument ...

Culture Brewery
Schönhauser Allee 36
10405 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
How does electricity get into the socket? The Energy Museum in Berlin does not only vividly illustrate how electricity is generated and distributed, but it also traces the development of communication technology and home appliances. Several exhibits are shown in action. Whoever, for instance, kept ...

Energy Museum
Teltowkanalstraße 9
12247 Berlin, Germany

From the outside, Berlin's last preserved gasometer made of stone seems almost unchanged. But a guided tour of the interior of the colossus in Fichtestraße reveals an insight into 130 years of the city's history. Since its construction in 1883/84, the circular building has stored so-called coal gas, ...

Gasholder "History Storehouse Fichtebunker"
Fichtestraße 6
10967 Berlin, Germany

Nestled between commercial buildings and main roads, the Herzberge landscape park offers a peaceful oasis amidst the hustle and bustle of a large city. Right in the middle of it can be found the complex of brick buildings constructed in late 19th century to form the Evangelisches Krankenhaus Königin ...

Herzberge Boiler House Museum
Herzbergstraße 79
10365 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
The industrial district Schöneweide is closely linked to Emil Rathenau. In 1896 he purchased an area of 92,000 square meters next to the river Spree to establish the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG). Thus, he laid the foundations of one of the major industrial sites of his time. One year ...

Industriesalon Schöneweide
Besucherzentrum für Industriekultur
Reinbeckstraße 9
12459 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
"Pfefferberg" refers to an area with listed buildings and three new buildings on an area of 13,504 sqm in the Berlin district of Prenzlauer Berg. The Pfeffer brewery was the first bottom-fermented brewery north of the former city limits of Berlin. The Bavarian master brewer Joseph Pfeffer founded ...

Schönhauser Allee 176
10119 Berlin, Germany


Berlin | Germany
The Aerodynamic Park is located on the campus of the Humboldt University in Berlin-Adlershof. In the 1930s, the vertical wind tunnel for spinning tests (Trudelturm), the silenced engine dynamometer and the large wind tunnel were built by the German Aviation Research Institute (Deutsche ...

Adlershof Aerodynamic Park
Zum Trudelturm / Brook-Taylor-Straße
12489 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
At the end of the 19th century, Berlin became an industrial centre. Apart from an increase of the number of factories there was a significant rise in population with more people moving back and forth in the city. The need for new infrastructures was met by a competition that called for new transport ...

AEG Tunnel
Voltastraße 5-6 (Hof neben Treppe 12.1)
13355 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
Architecture of high quality characterised the industrial history of Germany in the twentieth century and the acknowledged symbol of that quality is the Turbinenfabrik (turbine factory) in Huttenstrasse, Berlin, designed by Peter Behrens (1868-1940). Behrens was born in Hamburg, studied in various ...

AEG Turbine Factory
Huttenstraße 12-19
10553 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
Every day about two million passengers squeeze into Berlin's buses and trains. But how did the subway and tram lines emerge as an important part of public transport more than 140 years ago? In the historic control center at the Olympia Stadium subway station, the Berlin Underground Museum provides a ...

Berlin Subway Museum
Rossiter Platz 1
14052 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
BMW motorcycle tyres are filled with Berlin air. The BMW Group plant in Berlin-Spandau produces BMW motorcycles for sale around the globe in historic brick buildings. Factory tours provide an insight into state-of-the-art vehicle production at a long-established manufacturing site that tells an ...

BMW Group Factory Berlin
Am Juliusturm 14-38
13599 Berlin, Germany

The Friedrichshagen Waterworks in Berlin was considered the largest and most modern of its kind in Europe when it was completed in 1888. The pumping houses resemble palaces with their principal elevations facing the lake. The three steam pumping engines worked until 1979, and one of them can still ...

Friedrichshagen Waterworks Museum
Müggelseedamm 307
12587 Berlin, Germany

More than 300 years ago, Johann Friedrich Böttger invented the perfect composition for the production of porcelain. Labelled "white gold", the precious chinaware also fascinated the Prussian King Frederick the Great. He founded the Royal Porcelain Manufacture Berlin (Königliche Porzellan Manufaktur ...

KPM Royal Porcelain Manufacture
Wegelystraße 1
10623 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Berlin Schultheiss brewery was one of the largest beer producers in Germany. As production increased, so did the demand for malt. The construction of a new malthouse was decided and completed in 1917. The largest malting plant in Europe at the time remained ...

Malting Plant
Bessemerstraße 2-14
12103 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
The military history museum in Berlin is part of the Bundeswehr Museum of Military History which is located in Dresden and is focussed on the cultural rather than the technical history of warfare, particularly aerial warfare. Displays illustrate such themes as crossing borders, defenceless victims, ...

Military History Museum
Am Flugplatz Gatow 33
14089 Berlin, Germany

The brick buildings of Berlin's oldest waterworks are situated in the middle of a green idyll on the shore of Teufelssee lake. Before the central water supply was introduced in 1852, Berlin was served by around 5600 wells. In 1872, the Grunewald waterworks at Teufelssee went into operation and ...

Nature Conservation Centre Ökowerk Berlin at Old Waterworks
Teufelsseechaussee 22
14193 Berlin, Germany

Berlin | Germany
In Berlin, rubbish bins, garbage trucks and people wearing orange working clothes are ubiquitous. The municipal waste disposal company (Berliner Stadtreinigung BSR) dominates the urban landscape like no other institution. For almost 100 years, the Berlin refuse collection service has been ensuring ...

Saubere Zeiten (Clean Times)
Ringbahnstraße 96
12103 Berlin, Germany