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European Themeroute | Transport

During the early years of the Industrial Revolution there was a radical change in transportation. The arrival of pounding steamships and steam locomotives gave a huge boost to industrialisation. The change began on the canals which, for centuries, had proved to be the best means of transporting goods. In ... more

Icon: TransportThe tracks of the Industrial Revolution. European Theme Route Transport

During the early years of the Industrial Revolution there was a radical change in transportation. The arrival of pounding steamships and steam locomotives gave a huge boost to industrialisation. The change began on the canals which, for centuries, had proved to be the best means of transporting goods. In 1761, the Bridgewater canal was completed in one of the birthplaces of the industrial age, the British textile area Lancashire; from then on, the route supplied the booming city of Manchester with coal. Other canals followed quickly, enabling coal to be transported to textile factories and iron mills in all the major cities in Britain.

The steam engine triggered off the revolution in transport. The first experiments with the technology date back to 1690, when a French physicist by the name of Dennis Papin designed a steam-driven boat with bucket wheels. But it was not until a century later that practical experiments took place both in France and Britain. Nevertheless it was an American, Robert Fulton, who succeeded in building the first steamship – even before the first locomotive took to the rails. The "Clermont", a flat bottomed boat with two huge bucket wheels and a steam engine, was launched into the Hudson River in 1807.

In 1827 an Austrian forest engineer, Joseph Ressel, took out a patent on a screw propeller. This only really became commercially viable in 1845 after the "Great Britain" had crossed the Atlantic, driven by a ca. 5 metre screw propeller. About the same time people stopped building ships made of wood, because iron hulls were cheaper to construct, could take greater loads and withstand rough seas more easily. A gigantic new market had been opened for the ironmaking industry.

Railways gave the other great boost to industrialisation. They were first used in collieries, where goods wagons ran on wooden rails. About the middle of the 18th century horse-driven railways were running, both above and below the surface, on rails completely made of iron. The first steam-driven wagon was made by the French artillery officer, Nicolas Cugnot around 1770. He was followed by the Englishman, Richard Trevithick, who set his vehicle on rails. In 1803 the first colliery locomotive went into action in Coalbrookdale. This gave rise to George Stephenson's classic steam engine: the front part consisted of a large steam boiler, behind which worked the driver and the stoker; within the engine were a huge amount of horizontal heating pipes, and the steam was blown out at the front. Steam cylinders and pistons were mounted beneath on either side in order to drive the wheels directly.

Stephenson also built the first railway line in England. In 1825, the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened, and the subsequent railway boom resulted in an explosive growth in the whole of the British economy.

Just as railway mania was beginning to die down, a new development began: the motorcar engine. This revolutionised road traffic completely - primarily, however, on the continent and in the USA. Inventors started by trying to eradicate the disadvantages of the steam engine, which lost a lot of energy because the steam was created in the boiler but used separately in the operating cylinder. Therefore people started experimenting with burning the fuel directly in the operating cylinder. The obvious fuel seemed to be gas (produced from coal), for this was used for street lighting in many places. The first working gas engine was built in 1859 by a citizen of Luxembourg, Étienne Lenoir. He blew an explosive mixture of gas and air into a horizontal cylinder, alternately left and right of the pistons, and ignited it with an electric spark. Since both the mechanical stress and the fuel consumption were very high, the world had to wait until 1876 when the first really marketable internal combustion engine was launched by the German travelling salesman, Nicolaus August Otto.

Otto’s époque-making idea was the four-stroke principal. On the first stroke (intake) the piston descends, and a mixture of gas and air is sucked into the cylinder; on the second (compression), the piston rises and compresses the fuel-air mixture. This is then ignited electrically, and the resulting expansion of burning gases drives the piston downwards (power). On the fourth stroke (exhaust), the piston rises once again and pushes the waste fuel from the cylinder.

Rudolf Diesel's engine, however, was even more efficient. The German engineer based his findings on those of the French physician, Sadi Carnot. His motor sucked in pure air into the cylinder. And because this can be more highly compressed than a mixture, it heats up strongly. Only then is the fuel injected. Because of the high temperature, this ignites automatically, thereby driving the piston in the same way as in the Otto motor. Diesel's engine was presented to the world in 1897, and proved to be both durable and economic. It was possible to get several thousand horsepower from it. The result was that it replaced steam engines in small power stations and was soon built into ships. That said, the high compression demanded a robust construction, so that for a long time the motor was too heavy for locomotives and motor cars.

In the 1870s it was discovered that oil products could be used as engine fuel, because they could easily be gasified: the heavy oil components in diesel motors, the light ones in Otto motors. Now that an alternative had been found to coal gas, people were no longer dependent on a stationary gas connection. There were no more obstacles in the way of the triumphant march of new, mobile internal combustion engines.

Otto’s four-stroke motor was first put into motion in 1885 in a three wheel car made by the Mannheim constructor, Carl Benz; and a wooden motorbike made by Gottfried Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach. In the following years these two German engineers presented the first four-wheeled motorcar, which they had developed from a coach. It was driven by a single-cylinder motor with a 0.5 litre piston displacement and a performance of 1.5 horsepower. The vehicle became commercially viable on the French market where large engineering and assembly works had taken over motor manufacturing. Thanks to producers like Peugeot, Panhard & Levassor and Renault the first motorcar boom in France occurred at the turn of the century.

Further improvements soon made driving more comfortable. In 1888 an Irish vet, John Boyd Dunlop, invented rubber tyres (at first for bicycles); in 1902 the German company Robert Bosch invented sparkplugs, and in 1911 in the USA, an electric starting motor. Maybach’s 1901 "Mercedes" model contained a pioneering example of a motorcar engine: a four-cylinder, four-stroke 35 hp engine which could accelerate the car to a speed of 72 km an hour.

Motorcar production had already become an important manufacturing branch in industrial countries when Henry Ford conquered the mass market. He deliberately set out to build a cheap everyday car for farmers in the mid-west, the Ford model T. Sales rose like lightning, bringing with them revolutionary methods of production. As early as 1911 assembly line production began in the British Ford works in Manchester. In 1914 the complete Ford factory in Detroit was operating on the assembly line system.

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Sites

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Glenfinnan Railway Station Museum
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PH37 4LT Glenfinnan, United Kingdom

Gloucester | United Kingdom

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Gloucester Waterways Museum
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GL1 2EH Gloucester, United Kingdom

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Royal Navy Submarine Museum Gosport
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PO12 1NS Gosport, United Kingdom

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Ulster Folk & Transport Museum
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BT18 0EU Holywood, United Kingdom

Huddersfield | United Kingdom

The tunnel at Standedge beneath the Pennines ...

Standedge Tunnel & Visitor Centre
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HD7 6NQ Huddersfield, United Kingdom

Irvine | United Kingdom

The award-winning Scottish Maritime Museum at ...

Scottish Maritime Museum Irvine
The Linthouse
Harbour Road
KA12 8QE Irvine, United Kingdom

Jersey | United Kingdom

Overlooking St Helier Marina, the Maritime ...

Maritime Museum
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JE2 3ND Jersey, United Kingdom

Kidderminster | United Kingdom

This journey into the industrial past is a ...

Severn Valley Railway
Comberton Hill
DY10 1QX Kidderminster, United Kingdom

Lancaster | United Kingdom

Located within two fine Georgian quayside ...

Lancaster Maritime Museum
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LA1 1RB Lancaster, United Kingdom

Leeds | United Kingdom

Leeds is well-known as the commercial centre ...

Leeds Industrial Museum
Armley Mill
Canal Road
LS12 2QF Leeds, United Kingdom

Leicester | United Kingdom

The National Space Centre is an educational ...

National Space Centre
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LE4 5NS Leicester, United Kingdom

Leighton Buzzard | United Kingdom

Sand is a universal building material ...

Leighton Buzzard Railway
Page’s Park Station
Billington Road
LU7 4NT Leighton Buzzard, United Kingdom

Leyland | United Kingdom

The production of commercial vehicles at ...

British Commercial Vehicle Museum
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PR25 2LE Leyland, United Kingdom

Linlithgow | United Kingdom

Linlithgow Union Canal Society was founded in ...

Linlithgow Canal Centre
Manse Road Basin
EH49 6AJ Linlithgow, United Kingdom

Liverpool | United Kingdom

"They tore off my clothes, bound me with ...

International Slavery Museum
Albert Dock
L3 4AQ Liverpool, United Kingdom

Liverpool | United Kingdom

The sole remaining first class ticket for the ...

Merseyside Maritime Museum at Albert Dock
Albert Dock
L3 4AQ Liverpool, United Kingdom

Llanberis | United Kingdom

Snowdon, with a height above sea level of 1078 ...

Snowdon Mountain Railway
LL55 4JT Llanberies, United Kingdom

Llanelli | United Kingdom

The exciting new Discovery Centre is ...

Llanelli Discovery Centre
Millennium Coastal Park
North Dock
SA15 2LF Llanelli, United Kingdom

London | United Kingdom

The Thames Tunnel, built between 1825 and 1843 ...

Brunel Museum
Railway Avenue Rotherhithe
SE16 4LF London, United Kingdom

London | United Kingdom

The London Canal Museum by the Battlefield ...

London Canal Museum
12-13 New Wharf Road King’s Cross
N1 9RT London, United Kingdom

London | United Kingdom

London’s complex transport system has its ...

London Transport Museum
39 Wellington Street
WC2E 7BB London, United Kingdom

London | United Kingdom

London’s docks, like those in every other ...

Museum of London Dockland
No 1 Warehouse
West India Dock Road Canary Wharf
E14 4AL London, United Kingdom

London | United Kingdom

The Science Museum in London holds one of ...

Science Museum
Science Museum
Exhibition Road South Kensington
SW7 2DD London, United Kingdom

London | United Kingdom

St Pancras station is one of the most ...

St Pancras Station
Pancras Road
NW1 2QP London, United Kingdom

London | United Kingdom

Tower Bridge is the most iconic of the ...

Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge Exhibition
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SE1 2UP London, United Kingdom

Loughborough | United Kingdom

During the 1890s the Manchester, Sheffield & ...

Great Central Railway PLC
Great Central Road
LE11 1RW Loughborough, United Kingdom

Lowestoft | United Kingdom

The creation of the East Anglian Transport ...

East Anglia Transport Museum
Chapel Road Carlton Colville
NR33 8BL Lowestoft, United Kingdom

Lydney | United Kingdom

Visitors to the Dean Forest Railway can ride ...

Dean Forest Railway
Norchard Station Forest Road
GL15 4ET Lydney, United Kingdom

Lynmouth | United Kingdom

Funicular railways are popular across the ...

Lynton & Lynmouth Cliff Railway
The Esplanade
Lynmouth, United Kingdom

Manchester | United Kingdom

This is emphatically a museum of road ...

Museum of Transport, Greater Manchester
Boyle Street
M8 8UW Manchester, United Kingdom

Manchester | United Kingdom

Manchester was one of the very first ...

The Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester
Liverpool Road Castlefield
M3 4FP Manchester, United Kingdom

Market Harborough | United Kingdom

Foxton LocksA unique patchwork of 18th, 19th ...

Foxton Inclined Plane and Lock Staircase
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LE16 7RA Market Harborough, United Kingdom

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