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European Themeroute | Salt

For thousands of years salt has been a very important material: it was not just used for seasoning, but was needed much more as a preservative. Before ice boxes, fridges and finally freezers were invented, all foods from meat and fish to vegetables and even fruits had to be salted if they were to serve ... more

Icon: SaltWhite Gold. European Theme Route Salt

For thousands of years salt has been a very important material: it was not just used for seasoning, but was needed much more as a preservative. Before ice boxes, fridges and finally freezers were invented, all foods from meat and fish to vegetables and even fruits had to be salted if they were to serve as long lasting provisions. Therefore, the use of salt can be traced as far back as Neolithic times. It was well known in the early civilisations of Mesopotamia and Egypt and in antiquity was already produced on a proto-industrial scale.

Apparently, the people of what is now Hallstatt in Austria were the first to manufacture salt in large amounts. The production of salt, which still continues today, is indicated by the name "Hallstatt", because the german syllable "Hall-" goes back to the greek word salt. In the Hallstatt mine people already chiselled big chunks of rock salt from the walls in the 14th century BC. Between 800 and 400 BC, in the first Celtic era, production virtually went through the roof. Whole families laboured in the wide mining spaces underground. The men, dressed in finely woven, coloured woollen capes, broke large, heart shaped pieces of salt from the walls. The people became rich in the salt trade: archaeologists found such an amount of leftovers from their wealth in the Hallstatt region, they termed the first flourishing period of Celtic culture "Hallstatt-period".
At the same time production hit a first peak in the most important salt producing region of France, the Seille valley in eastern Lorraine. There, salt was manufactured from the saliferous spring water in the area. Workers filled the salty water, called "brine", in big ceramic pans and heated them until the bulk of water had evaporated. Then they placed the concentrated brine on a "briquetage", a ceramic grid over a fire, supported by small pillars. There the brine sizzled until only a cake of pure salt was left.

The Romans were the first to use the third technique of salt production on a large scale: on the Meditarranean coast they gathered seawater in large shallow basins. Due to the intense sun and the wind, over time the water evaporated and in the end workers scraped up pure dried sea salt. These three traditional ways of salt production have already been described by the roman scholar Pliny the elder in his "Natural History".

The beginnings of many famous salt works which flourished for centuries lie in the early Middle Ages: Wielicka in Poland for instance, Lüneburg in Northern Germany, and a number of salines in Worcestershire in England. At that time salt refining became more efficient through the utilisation of large pans made of lead instead of ceramics, but still consumed a lot of energy. The consequences can be witnessed today in the environs of Lüneburg: the famous Lüneburg Heath only came into being because the local forests were ruthlessly exploited for the fires of the salt works. The most influential innovation in medieval salt production was the invention of leaching. Presumably it was used for the first time in Hallein in Austria's Salzkammergut: in the mine a space carved out of the salt rock was filled with fresh water which absorbed the salt from the surrounding walls. Thus an artificial brine was created which later would be boiled on a conventional briquetage. This new process opened up rock with low salt concentrations for exploitation, too.

Since the middle of the 16th century, so-called "graduation houses" or "graduation lanes" came into being. These constructions, which presumably originated in Lombardy, can still be seen in many old salt producing towns. They were basically long thorny hedges of considerable height, which served to increase the salinity of the brine: If saliferous water was run over a blackthorn or juniper hedge, a certain amount of the water would cling to the twigs and thorns of the plants. Afterwards, less time and less firewood was needed to boil the brine. Graduation lanes quickly spread and some were extended almost to the length of a mile. A second, unexpected advantage of the installations emerged in the 19th century, when spa guests where advised to promenade along the graduation lanes and breathe the saliferous air.

Despite such efforts to reduce the necessary amount of firewood, in the middle of the 16th century a wood shortage began to be experienced. Increasingly, salt works had to try out the much detested, stinking coal as a combustible. So in fact it was the production of salt which initiated the rapid expansion of coal mining. Prussia for example, holding a profitable monopoly for the salt trade as many countries did, reorganized the entire mining sector to further increase the profits. Salt works in Great Britain though were quickest to adapt to the new fuel, and the country became the biggest manufacturer and also consumer of salt.

From the middle of the 18th century on, this process was further accelerated by the industrialisation in the UK, because salt now was increasingly sought for as a commodity for chemical industries. Particularly it was needed to produce soda, a bleaching agent in the booming cotton business. Originally, soda had been made from plants, but corresponding to an invention of the French chemist Nicolas Leblanc, it was synthesized now on a large industrial scale from sulphuric acid, coal, calcium carbonate and salt. The process reduced the cost of cotton products drastically, but was extremely hazardous to health and environment. Since it was rather expensive, too, it was replaced by a new procedure by the middle of the 19th century. Developed by Ernest Solvay from Belgium, this was based on natriumchloride, carbondioxide and ammonium. Because soda also served as a basic material in the manufacturing of glass and soap, Solvay's company grew to a potent chemical enterprise which still is in business worldwide today. Also the British company ICI earned its once leading position by producing soda.

Since the end of the 19th century, chemical industries have an increasing demand for potassium salts. Because potassium is a major nutrient for plants, potassium salts are particularly needed to synthesize fertilizers, but also for soap-, textile- and paper-production. The world's largest resources of pure potassium salt are to be found in a long stretch from east to west across Germany. The salt mines there can be recognized from far away by their whitish-grey mountain-like spoil heaps, which still pose a threat to the environment, since rains wash out the remaining salt.

In the 20th century salt has become a cheap everyday product, because new deposits have been opened up and production has been thoroughly economized. The techniques though are basically still the same as in centuries before. A striking example is "solution mining": in this highly efficient technique to extract rock salt, the medieval leaching process has been optimized by drilling holes into the rock and installing two pipes in each of them, one for injecting fresh water, which dissolves the salt from the rock, the other to extract the saturated brine. Later the brine is boiled as it traditionally was, only now in a more energy efficient, highly automated process.



Berchtesgaden | Germany
Berchtesgaden, 19 km from Bad Reichenhall, was an independent administration until it was incorporated in Bavaria in the early nineteenth century. Salt had been extracted there since the sixteenth century, and in 1817 Georg von Reichenbach was responsible for constructing a pipeline to carry brine, ...

Berchtesgaden Salt Mine
Bergwerkstrasse 83
83471 Berchtesgaden, Germany

Bleicherode | Germany
Potash is a term used to denote a variety of mined and manufactured water-soluble salts of potassium and particularly potassium chloride, KCl (sometimes called Sylvite) and potassium sulphate, K2SO4. The extraction of potash has been a major industry of that part of Germany west of Magdeburg and ...

Bleicherode Potash Mine
NDH Entsorgungsbetreibergesellschaft mbH
Nordhäuser Str. 70
99752 Bleicherode, Germany

Krayenberggemeinde OT Merkers | Germany
Even General Eisenhower was there. At the end of the Second world War the American general confiscated the reserves of gold and currency which had been hidden here by the Reichsbank. The money has long since gone. The gold which can be seen here today is white: potassium salt. You can see it for ...

Merkers Adventure Mine
Zufahrtstraße 1
36460 Krayenberggemeinde, Germany

Sondershausen | Germany
Sondershausen, a medium-sized town of about 20,000 inhabitants, lies about 50 km. north of Erfurt in the land of Thüringia.  Prospecting for potash began in the closing years of the nineteenth century and the first shaft of what became the Glückauf mine was completed in 1895. Two years later a ...

Sondershausen Adventure Mine
Erlebnisbergwerk Sondershausen
Schachtstrasse 20-22
99706 Sondershausen, Germany

Margherita di Savoia BT | Italy
The salina at Margherita di Savoia on Italy’s Adriatic coast about 40 km. south-east of Foggia is reckoned to be the largest plant in Europe currently producing sea salt. Salt is made by evaporating sea water which passes through a series of basins in which its salinity gradually increases through ...

Historical Museum of the Saltworks
Museo Storico della salina
Via Vittorio Emanuele 99
71044 Margherita di Savoia, Italy

Marsala TP | Italy
Two groups of salt pans on the Laguna dello Stagnone on the western coast of Sicily, opposite the island of Mothia and alongside the ‘salt road’ from Trapani to Marsala, are managed by the travel company Saline Ettore e Infersa SRL. Visitors are able to see a centuries-old landscape of salt working, ...

Saline della Laguna
Contrada Ettora Infersa
92105 Marsala, Italy

Bochnia | Poland
Bochnia is a town of about 30,000 people east of Kraków in southern Poland. Its salt mine, supposedly the largest in Poland, probably dates from the thirteenth century, and was once part of the royal salt works administered from Kraków. The mine was first accorded legislative protection in 1981, and ...

Bochnia Salt Mine
Kopalnia Soli w Bochnia
Campi 15
32-700 Bochnia, Poland

Ciechocinek | Poland
Ciechocinek is a health resort on the River Vistula, and the location of some of Europe’s outstanding timber structures. New brine springs were discovered in the area in the early 19th century and the mining engineer Jakub Graff designed three graduation towers, built in 1827-8, 1833 and 1859, ...

Ciechocinek graduation towers
Tężnie Solankowe Promotion Office
ul Zdrojowa
8720 Ciechocinek, Poland

Kłodawa | Poland
The salt deposits at Kłodawa were investigated in the 1930s and during the Second World War. They proved to be extensive, measuring 26 km X 2 km. A company was formed to exploit them in 1949 and the first two of three shafts were opened in 1950-54. The salt has pink and blue colours and is ...

Kłodawa Salt Mine
Kopalnia Soli Kłodawa
Aleje 1000-lecia 2
62-650 Kłodawa, Poland

Figueira da Foz | Portugal
The salt industry at Figuera de la Foz, a seaport and resort on the Mondego estuary, dates from the eleventh century AD, but many of the traditional salinas are being converted to fish farms. The salt pans in the region are characteristic of those on Atlantic coasts where the tidal range is much ...

Figueira da Foz Salt Museum
Núcleo Museológico do Sal
3080-084 Figueira da Foz, Portugal

Praid | Romania
Praid is a town in eastern Transylvania in Romania where the majority of the population is Hungarian. It was known from the seventeenth century as the Szelder (i.e. Hungarian) Salt Region. There are extensive deposits of salt which were exploited in Roman times and in the middle ages. Large-scale ...

Praid Salt Mine
Salina Praid
Str Garii 44
537240 Praid, Romania

Slanic Prahova | Romania
Slanic Prahova is a spa with a population of just over 7000 people, situated 400 m above sea level, that is important for its salt mines. It was developed as a resort, with warm saline baths, from 1885, and is still a centre for the treatment of varied diseases. There are records of salt mining ...

Salt Museum
Salina Slanic Prahova
(Spa) SC Valdor SRL, 28 23 August Street
106200 Slanic Prahova, Romania

Turda | Romania
Turda is the second largest city in Cluj province in northern Romania and has for many centuries been famed for its salt mines. Many of its workings are exceptionally well-preserved. Some were opened for tourists in 1992, and a substantial investment in 2010 included a new entrance and ...

Salina Turda
Aleea Durgǎului 7
40116 Turda, Romania

Solikamsk | Russia
Solikamsk on the Usolka River in the Urals has been celebrated for the production of salt since the discovery of large deposits early in the fifteenth century. It grew into a large city in the seventeenth century by taking advantage of its position on the Bubnov Road, the only route from Europe into ...

Museum of the History of Salt
МАУК «Музей истории соли»
Gazety Zvezda Street 2
618500 Solikamsk, Russia

Prešov Solivar | Slovakia
Solivar, part of the city of Prešov, has been one of Europe’s principal sources of salt since the middle ages. Salt production continues today, and visitors can see a succession of monumental structures relating to the industry’s past. A ‘gapel’, a huge horse-operated device, with two 15 m arms in ...

Solivar Salt Works
Gáplová 21
082 67 Prešov Solivar, Slovakia

Piran is one of the towns on the 46 km of Slovenian coastline on the Adriatic, whose architecture and planning owe much to Venetian influences. The Maritime Museum, founded in 1954 and located in a mid-nineteenth century building in the classical style, is concerned with all aspects of the history ...

Sergej Masera Maritime Museum - Museum of Salt-Making
Pomorski Muzej Sergej Masera
Cankarjevo nabrezje 3
103 Piran, Slovenia

Gerri de la Sal | Spain
Salt has always been the element which has marked Gerri people’s fate and the village’s image. The salt production, there are records from the IX century which prove that, became a profitable business in the late 19th century. The salt exploitation is due to a salted spring  (  ) a few meters far ...

Gerri de la Sal Salt Museum
Museu de Gerri de la Sal
Square Àngel Esteve, s/n
25590 Gerri de la Sal, Spain

Imón | Spain
The medieval cities of Imón de Jadraque in the province of Guadalajara, lie some 150 km NE of Madrid near the main road from the capital to Barcelona and already attract large numbers of tourists. The salinas employed sunlight to produce salt by evaporating brine from natural springs. Each of the ...

Las Salinas de Imón
Imón, Spain

Santa Pola | Spain
The Salt Museumis located in an old salt works within the Natural Park of Salinas, where salt water has been evaporated for centuries to make salt. The small museum that shows with original equipment and displays the process of extraction of salt in the past and present. It explains the ...

Santa Pola Salt Museum
Museo de la Sal
Avenida Zaragoza, 45
03130 Santa Pola, Spain

Bad Zurzach | Switzerland
The drilling towers of Zurzach (now called Bad Zurzach for its role as a spa) are impressive landmarks, marching across the fields beside the river Rhine. Salt drilling in Zurzach was tried in 1856 and rock salt was discovered in 1882. The preserved group of towers for drilling and pumping brine ...

Salt-drilling Towers
5330 Bad Zurzach, Switzerland