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European Themeroute | Production and Manufacturing

Domestic handmade textile production was typical for the pre-industrial age. The father sat at the loom and the women of the family were responsible for spinning the yarn. An entrepreneur (in Germany he was called a "Verleger") delivered the raw material and organised sales, often over considerable ... more

Icon: Production and ManufacturingGoods for the world. European Theme Route Manufacturing

Domestic handmade textile production was typical for the pre-industrial age. The father sat at the loom and the women of the family were responsible for spinning the yarn. An entrepreneur (in Germany he was called a "Verleger") delivered the raw material and organised sales, often over considerable distances. Textile manufacture was the leading industry in Europe: from the 16th century onwards it was basically organised on such a system.

The first types of factories grew up in the 17th century, when larger groups of workers were concentrated in so-called "manufactories". Although this also applied to textiles, it was more common in glass and salt production, ironworks and hammer works. In France, Royal manufactories produced tapestries, furniture and porcelain in magnificent style. The process was divided up into sections from the start, and the workers had to keep to a strict discipline despite the fact that the majority were still working individually by hand. The decisive element which turned the whole world of work on its head was mechanisation.

The factory age began around the end of the 18th century in Britain, with large spinning mills in the county of Lancashire. Here one waterwheel was able to drive around 1000 spindles. Shortly afterwards there followed the steam engine, which made production independent of swiftly flowing water and gave a huge boost to mechanical spinning, weaving and, soon after, the whole of the British economy.

From now on machines dictated the organisation and tempo of work: but not only in textile manufacturing. The Economist, Adam Smith, tells of a factory where the manufacture of a pin was divided up into 18 working sections. In 1769, the English pioneer, Josiah Wedgwood, opened up his porcelain factory "Etruria" near Stoke-on-Trent. Whereas before that, workers had followed the path of their product from the pottery wheel to decorating, firing and storing, they were now ordered to keep strictly to their own department.

Division of labour raised productivity considerably. The actions of the workers, on the other hand, were increasingly reduced to a few, constantly repeated movements. As a result they gradually became alienated from the products they made. Formerly their products had been the pride of hand workers. Since expert knowledge was hardly necessary, employers now preferred to employ women and children whom they could pay less than men. The workers were ruthlessly exploited. Women and children in textile factories had to work shifts of between 14 and 16 hours. Even hen working conditions improved during the course of the 19th century – primarily for children – this tendency was aggravated even more by the introduction of mass production.

As early as 1797 an American by the name of Eli Whitney suggested making rifle locks from exchangeable parts, instead of making them individually for every weapon. Thanks to this standardisation – a basic prerequisite for mass production - costs were drastically reduced and production further accelerated. The manufacture of exchangeable parts only really came to the fore at the end of the 19th century with the arrival of new metal precision tools. After that, the production of standard quality tools gradually became a manufacturing branch in its own right: machine tool manufacturing.
In 1881 in the USA, Frederick W. Taylor began to divide working processes systematically into their smallest components, in order to rationalise them even more. His quantitative analyses laid the foundations for "Taylorism": scientific production management. The immediate results were that engineers would go round the factories checking working processes with a watch in their hand in order to speed up the work.

The last stage of mass production was the introduction of the conveyor belt. This began in the stockyards of Chicago and Cincinnati. It was then adapted by Henry Ford in 1911 for his motor car factories in Manchester and Detroit. Whilst the conveyor belt was moving forward the next chassis at a constant speed the workers had to mount the components with as few actions as possible to avoid any "unproductive" movements. The pace of production was even more drastically increased. Whereas it had formerly taken 12.5 man-hours to mount a chassis, by 1914 only 93 man-minutes were needed. Thus Ford cars could be afforded by everyone.

In the second half of the 19th century methods of industrial production reached the food sector. The powerful engines which delivered energy independent of the specific location, encouraged entrepreneurs to set up large bakeries and breweries. New techniques made the processing of agrarian products increasingly independent of the seasons of the year.
The invention of artificial cooling methods was an important step. In 1748 a Scotsman by the name of William Cullen was the first man to demonstrate how to extract warmth from the environment by reducing a fluid to steam. The process was made even more effective by compressing the refrigerating agents. That said, it was quite a long time before these principles could be used to make the first effective refrigerator. An American by the name of Jacob Perkins is reputed to have built the first model in 1835. Around 20 years later an Australian, James Harrison, introduced refrigerators to the meat and brewing industries.

Thus large-scale beer production became possible during the summer months. At the same time people learnt how to control the temperature of the mash with a thermometer, and the amount of original gravity with a saccharometer. Such scientific knowledge was characteristic for the whole area of food production.

Conservation was a further step. The fact that food remains edible when it is kept in a closed container at a certain temperature over a long period of time, was discovered by a Frenchman, Nicolas Appert, in 1809 when he was charged with supplying food to Napoleon's armies. His British colleague, Peter Durand, discovered that tins were the best containers for doing so. But it was not until 1863 that a scientist by the name of Louis Pasteur discovered that microbes could be killed by heating. The production of tinned food spread quickly, most of all in the USA, and the United States soon became the market leader.

Milk conservation can also be traced back to military requirements. During the American Civil War in the 1860s Gail Borden developed condensed milk. A Swiss firm launched it onto the European market and soon after it merged with another firm owned by Henri Nestlé, the inventor of baby food. The result was that condensed milk became famous under Nestlé’s name.

Around the end of the 19th century a new form of co-operative manufacturing arose in dairy production. Dairy farmers, above all in the Netherlands, Scandinavia and northern Germany, joined forces to market their dairy produce. Cooperative dairies produced butter and cheese to uniform standards and conquered ever larger markets beyond national boundaries. The standardisation of food production, increasingly independent of the time of manufacture and the region where it was made, has continued right down to the present day.

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Member Sites ERIH Association

Magdeburg | Germany

If there is one feature which unites the ...

Magdeburg Technical Museum
Dodendorfer Straße 65
39112 Magdeburg, Germany

Mendig | Germany

The millstone district in the Eifel is an area ...

Eifel Millstone District
Lava-Dome
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Pforzheim | Germany

When margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden founded ...

SCHMUCKWELTEN | World of Jewellery Pforzheim
Westliche Karl-Friedrich-Straße 56
75172 Pforzheim, Germany

Pforzheim | Germany

The museum radiates an aura of vibrant ...

Technical Museum of Pforzheim’s Jewellery and Watchmaking Industries
Bleichstraße 81
75173 Pforzheim, Germany

Rüsselsheim | Germany

Adam Opel (1837-95) laid the foundation for ...

Municipal and Industrial Museum
Hauptmann Scheuermann Weg 4
65428 Rüsselsheim, Germany

Schönebeck/Elbe | Germany

The town of Schönebeck, located 15 km south of ...

Schönebeck/Elbe Museum of Industry and Art
Erlebniswelt Technik und Innovation (iMUSEt)
Ernst-Thälmann-Straße 5a
39218 Schönebeck/Elbe, Germany

Sonneberg | Germany

Sonneberg, the town of toys, was founded in the ...

Sonneberg Town of Toys
Bahnhofsplatz 1
96515 Sonneberg, Germany

Villingen-Schwenningen | Germany

The Wuerttembergische Clock Factory is located ...

Museum of Industrial Clock Making
Bürkstraße 39
78054 Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany

Hermoupolis | Greece

Hermoupolis is an industrial community with an ...

Hermoupolis Industrial Museum
George Papandreou 11
84100 Hermoupolis, Greece

Budapest | Hungary

In the evolution of mankind, in the formation ...

Museum of Electrical Engineering
Elektrotechnikai Múzeum
Kazinczy u. 21
1075 Budapest, Hungary

Budapest | Hungary

The Technical Study Stores can be considered as ...

Technical Study Stores
Múszaki Tanulmánytár
Prielle Kornélia 10
1117 Budapest, Hungary

Budapest | Hungary

The main site of the Hungarian Technical and ...

The Hungarian Museum of Science, Technology and Transport
Magyar Müszaki és Közlekedési Közlekedési Múzeum
Városligeti Körut 11
1146 Budapest, Hungary

Reggio Emilia | Italy

The Historical Archive of Officine Reggiane ...

Officine Reggiane Historical Archive
Archivio Storico Officine Reggiane
Via Dante Alighieri 11
42121 Reggio Emilia, Italy

Rossano | Italy

Amarelli family represents a story in the ...

"Giorgio Amarelli" Licorice Museum
"Giorgio Amarelli" Museo della Liquirizia
Contrada Amarelli Strada Statale 106
87067 Rossano, Italy

Ruda | Italy

The Chiozza starch factory is a real unique ...

Chiozza Starch Factory
Amederia Chiozza
Via Luigi Pasteur
33050 Ruda, Italy

Settimo Torinese | Italy

The Freidano Ecomuseum takes its name from the ...

Freidano Ecomuseum
Ecomuseo del Freidano
Via Ariosto 36-bis
10036 Settimo Torinese, Italy

Vaduz | Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein in a principality of only 160 sq ...

Liechtenstein National Museum
Liechtensteinisches LandesMuseum
Städtle 43
9490 Vaduz, Liechtenstein

Hyllestad | Norway

Nearly 400 quarries are identified in ...

Norwegian Millstone Centre
Norsk Kvernsteinsenter
6957 Hyllestad, Norway

Katowice - Szopienice | Poland

It is one of the landmarks in the history of ...

Zinc Rolling Mill
Walcownia
11 listopada 50
40-387 Katowice, Poland

Radzionków | Poland

The Bread and School Museum is not a typical ...

Museum of Bread, School and Curiosities
Muzeum Chleba, Szkoly i Czekawostek
ul.Z.Nałkowskiej 5
41-922 Radzionków, Poland

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