The museum was started in 1906 to celebrate the first millennium of the the city of Weilburg, on the River Lahn. Since 1949 it has been in the chancellery building of Schloss Weilburg. The city archive is also located there. The museum is in two parts: the museum of local history and the museum of mining. The mining museum was the first of its kind in the region, created in 1972. Iron-ore mining in the Lahn valley dates back 3,000 years and was mentioned in documents in 780 AD. The area also produced clay, slate and marble.
The museum explains this history comprehensively, covering geology, the oldest workings, surveying and administration, methods of lighting, drilling and blasting, safety and mine rescue, protective clothing, religion and transport. Hundreds of objects are included from different periods. A 200-m-long simulated mine is set out with historical tools and machinery.