Tula is a substantial city with about half a million inhabitants on the Upa river 193 km south of Moscow. Ironworking was established in the district by the Dutchman Andreas Winius (1605-62), whose son knew Czar Peter the Great (1672-1725) who founded a state-owned arms factory in Tula, and in 1724 sowed the seed of the present museum by directing that examples of obsolete weapons should be retained and cared for. In 1775 Catherine the Great (1729-1796) ordered the establishment of the House of Rare and Exemplary Weapons. The museum, located in the Tula Kremlin, was formally established in 1873 but was not opened to the public until 1924. It shows the evolution of battlefield weapons from the middle ages to modern times. The eighteenth and nineteenth century weapons in displays were mostly made at Tula, although the twentieth century collection includes some examples from other factories in the USSR. Apart from military weapons, there are hunting and sporting guns of great beauty, and the products of Russian gunsmiths can be compared with those of other countries. There are also silencers, guns for use under water, artillery pieces, aircraft guns and toy guns. Visitors can hold rifles of the First World War and try on Red Army uniforms. Films illustrate how weapons were used in past conflicts, and computer games are a feature of some of the displays. The museum is exceptionally popular and attracts 250,000 visitors per year.