Kaluga is a city, 150 km south-west of Moscow, chiefly notable today as a centre of motor car production. It was the birthplace of the pioneer of cosmonautics, Konstnatin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), and a museum is dedicated to his memory. It is also a scientific research centre co-ordinating the work of space and cosmonautic museums all over Russia. Yuri Gagarin (1934-68) laid the foundation stone for the museum in 1961, but the building was not completed until 1967. The displays are divided into three sections. The first shows the work of Tsiolkovsky, including dirigibles as well as rockets. The second shows the history of Soviet space exploration in some detail. Topics include the engines of spacecraft, space suits, the problems of eating and drinking in space, and lunar samples. The third is an outdoor ‘garden’ in which large objects, including a Vostok rocket, are displayed. Tsiolkovsky was for much of his life a recluse, living in a wooden home on the outskirts of Kaluga which has been a museum since 1936.