Ejea de los Caballeros is the capital of the region known as the Cinco Villas (five [small] towns), some 70 km north of the provincial capital, the city of Zaragoza. The relationship between water and agriculture is particularly important since the region is partially an endorheic basin, where water has no fluvial outlet to the sea. Furthermore it suffers from extremes of drought and of floods caused by storms. Growing crops and keeping animals is heavily dependent on irrigation. Agricultural is made possible by the Yesa reservoir, completed in 1959 and operational from 1960, and the 132 km Canal de la Bardenas, which carries water south to parts of Navarre and Zaragoza.
The museum aims to show the relationship between water and agriculture and is divided into five sections, displaying the power of water, the consequences of the absence and presence of water in the area around Ejea de los Caballeros, and the transition from traditional to mechanised agriculture in the region. The museum has the largest collection of agricultural machinery in Spain.