The Museum of Science and Technology in Serbia was formally constituted on the initiative of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts in 1989, although many proposals for such a project had been put forward previously. At that time the museum had no collections. It was recognised as a national museum in 1990 and from 1991 began to co-ordinate the work of 16 museums in other parts of Serbia.
In 2005 the Museum was offered the use of Belgrade’s first thermal electric power station at Dorcól in the northern quarter of the city. The building was restored and the first galleries were opened in 2009. The main emphasis in the displays, as is appropriate in a former power station, is on electrification and its social and economic consequences, but there are also exhibitions on printing, radio communications and photography, as well as a documentation centre that holds materials on many aspects of industrial and technological history in Serbia. The Museum is a location on the cultural route 'Tesla Ways'.