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European Themeroute | Transport and Communication

During the early years of the Industrial Revolution there was a radical change in transportation. The arrival of pounding steamships and steam locomotives gave a huge boost to industrialisation. The change began on the canals which, for centuries, had proved to be the best means of transporting goods. In ... more

Icon: Transport and CommunicationThe tracks of the Industrial Revolution. European Theme Route Transport

During the early years of the Industrial Revolution there was a radical change in transportation. The arrival of pounding steamships and steam locomotives gave a huge boost to industrialisation. The change began on the canals which, for centuries, had proved to be the best means of transporting goods. In 1761, the Bridgewater canal was completed in one of the birthplaces of the industrial age, the British textile area Lancashire; from then on, the route supplied the booming city of Manchester with coal. Other canals followed quickly, enabling coal to be transported to textile factories and iron mills in all the major cities in Britain.

The steam engine triggered off the revolution in transport. The first experiments with the technology date back to 1690, when a French physicist by the name of Dennis Papin designed a steam-driven boat with bucket wheels. But it was not until a century later that practical experiments took place both in France and Britain. Nevertheless it was an American, Robert Fulton, who succeeded in building the first steamship – even before the first locomotive took to the rails. The "Clermont", a flat bottomed boat with two huge bucket wheels and a steam engine, was launched into the Hudson River in 1807.

In 1827 an Austrian forest engineer, Joseph Ressel, took out a patent on a screw propeller. This only really became commercially viable in 1845 after the "Great Britain" had crossed the Atlantic, driven by a ca. 5 metre screw propeller. About the same time people stopped building ships made of wood, because iron hulls were cheaper to construct, could take greater loads and withstand rough seas more easily. A gigantic new market had been opened for the ironmaking industry.

Railways gave the other great boost to industrialisation. They were first used in collieries, where goods wagons ran on wooden rails. About the middle of the 18th century horse-driven railways were running, both above and below the surface, on rails completely made of iron. The first steam-driven wagon was made by the French artillery officer, Nicolas Cugnot around 1770. He was followed by the Englishman, Richard Trevithick, who set his vehicle on rails. In 1803 the first colliery locomotive went into action in Coalbrookdale. This gave rise to George Stephenson's classic steam engine: the front part consisted of a large steam boiler, behind which worked the driver and the stoker; within the engine were a huge amount of horizontal heating pipes, and the steam was blown out at the front. Steam cylinders and pistons were mounted beneath on either side in order to drive the wheels directly.

Stephenson also built the first railway line in England. In 1825, the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened, and the subsequent railway boom resulted in an explosive growth in the whole of the British economy.

Just as railway mania was beginning to die down, a new development began: the motorcar engine. This revolutionised road traffic completely - primarily, however, on the continent and in the USA. Inventors started by trying to eradicate the disadvantages of the steam engine, which lost a lot of energy because the steam was created in the boiler but used separately in the operating cylinder. Therefore people started experimenting with burning the fuel directly in the operating cylinder. The obvious fuel seemed to be gas (produced from coal), for this was used for street lighting in many places. The first working gas engine was built in 1859 by a citizen of Luxembourg, Étienne Lenoir. He blew an explosive mixture of gas and air into a horizontal cylinder, alternately left and right of the pistons, and ignited it with an electric spark. Since both the mechanical stress and the fuel consumption were very high, the world had to wait until 1876 when the first really marketable internal combustion engine was launched by the German travelling salesman, Nicolaus August Otto.

Otto’s époque-making idea was the four-stroke principal. On the first stroke (intake) the piston descends, and a mixture of gas and air is sucked into the cylinder; on the second (compression), the piston rises and compresses the fuel-air mixture. This is then ignited electrically, and the resulting expansion of burning gases drives the piston downwards (power). On the fourth stroke (exhaust), the piston rises once again and pushes the waste fuel from the cylinder.

Rudolf Diesel's engine, however, was even more efficient. The German engineer based his findings on those of the French physician, Sadi Carnot. His motor sucked in pure air into the cylinder. And because this can be more highly compressed than a mixture, it heats up strongly. Only then is the fuel injected. Because of the high temperature, this ignites automatically, thereby driving the piston in the same way as in the Otto motor. Diesel's engine was presented to the world in 1897, and proved to be both durable and economic. It was possible to get several thousand horsepower from it. The result was that it replaced steam engines in small power stations and was soon built into ships. That said, the high compression demanded a robust construction, so that for a long time the motor was too heavy for locomotives and motor cars.

In the 1870s it was discovered that oil products could be used as engine fuel, because they could easily be gasified: the heavy oil components in diesel motors, the light ones in Otto motors. Now that an alternative had been found to coal gas, people were no longer dependent on a stationary gas connection. There were no more obstacles in the way of the triumphant march of new, mobile internal combustion engines.

Otto’s four-stroke motor was first put into motion in 1885 in a three wheel car made by the Mannheim constructor, Carl Benz; and a wooden motorbike made by Gottfried Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach. In the following years these two German engineers presented the first four-wheeled motorcar, which they had developed from a coach. It was driven by a single-cylinder motor with a 0.5 litre piston displacement and a performance of 1.5 horsepower. The vehicle became commercially viable on the French market where large engineering and assembly works had taken over motor manufacturing. Thanks to producers like Peugeot, Panhard & Levassor and Renault the first motorcar boom in France occurred at the turn of the century.

Further improvements soon made driving more comfortable. In 1888 an Irish vet, John Boyd Dunlop, invented rubber tyres (at first for bicycles); in 1902 the German company Robert Bosch invented sparkplugs, and in 1911 in the USA, an electric starting motor. Maybach’s 1901 "Mercedes" model contained a pioneering example of a motorcar engine: a four-cylinder, four-stroke 35 hp engine which could accelerate the car to a speed of 72 km an hour.

Motorcar production had already become an important manufacturing branch in industrial countries when Henry Ford conquered the mass market. He deliberately set out to build a cheap everyday car for farmers in the mid-west, the Ford model T. Sales rose like lightning, bringing with them revolutionary methods of production. As early as 1911 assembly line production began in the British Ford works in Manchester. In 1914 the complete Ford factory in Detroit was operating on the assembly line system.

The city of Ruse is on the banks of the River Danube in northern Bulgaria. The National Museum of Transport and Communications is principally concerned with railways and is located in Bulgaria’s first railway station, opened in 1866 on the route from Western Europe to Istanbul through the Black Sea ...

National Museum of Transport and Communications
5 Bratya Obretenevi Street
7000 Ruse, Bulgaria

Sofia | Bulgaria
The National Polytechnic Museum was founded in 1957 and is managed by the Academy of Sciences under the direction of the Bulgarian Ministry of Culture. It occupies a building that formerly accommodated a museum commemorating Georgi Dimitrov (1882-1949), the Communist leader and theoretician. Its ...

National Polytechnic Museum
Ul Opalchenska 66
1303 Sofia, Bulgaria

Varna | Bulgaria
Varna, on the Black Sea, is the principal port of Bulgaria, and was established by Greeks in the sixth century BC. Railways were opened from Russe in 1866 and from Sofia in 1899, and the modern harbour was constructed 1906. The Varna Museum illustrates many aspects of the growth of the city, ...

Naval Museum
3 Primorski Boulevard
9000 Varna, Bulgaria

Dubrovnik | Croatia
The ancient port of Dubrovnik is one of the most spectacular walled cities in Europe. It was effectively a self-governing city, then known as Ragusa, from 1526 until it was invaded by the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806. It became part of the Habsburg Empire in 1815, and was re-named when it ...

Maritime Museum
Pomorski muzej
Ulica kneza Damjana Jude 2
2000 Dubrovnic, Croatia

Zagreb | Croatia
The railway museum in Zagreb was established on 19 March 1991 and formally named the Croatian Railway Museum from 20 May 2001. It is supported by railway pensioners association, which donated its historical collection to the museum in 2011. It is located in the TŽV Gredelj locomotive works the ...

Croatian Railway Museum
Hrvatski Željeznički Muzej
Ul Grada Vukovana 47
10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Zagreb | Croatia
The museum of technology in Croatia was established as a result of the efforts of Dr Bonz Tezak, a professor at Zagreb University, and was formally constituted in 1954, although there was an earlier museum of trades and crafts in the city which had ceased to function. It occupies timber buildings ...

Technical museum
Tehnički Muzej
Savska cesta 18
Zagreb, Croatia

Limassol | Cyprus
The Cyprus Motor Museum was founded by the internationally successful rally driver Dimi Mauropoulos (b 1949) and its core is his personal collection of 90 vehicles. The museum opened in 2014 but re-located to its present site in 2015. The emphasis in the collection is on classic and collectible ...

Cyprus Motor Museum
3056 Limassol, Cyprus

The Cyprus Classic Motorcycle Museum was established by Andreas Nicolaou, and has a collection of more than 150 vehicles, the earliest of 1914, the latest of 1983. They are predominantly British, with Norton, BSA, Ariel and Triumph well-represented, but also include examples of MV Augusta and Moto ...

Cyprus Classic Motorcycle Museum
Granikou 44
1010 Nicosia, Cyprus

Brno | Czech Republic
Brno grew from the late 18th century to be one of the principal industrial cities in Europe. The manufacture of woollen cloth was introduced by a state-sponsored company in 1764. The German Wilhelm Mundy set up a textile enterprise in 1774, and was followed by the Offermann-Thomann company who ...

Technical Museum in Brno
Purkyñova 105
612 000 Brno, Czech Republic

České Budějovice | Czech Republic
The original Bodvar (Budweiser) beer and Koh I Noor pencils are manufactured at Ceske Budejovice in southern Bohemia, but the town was also a place of great trade, and is important as the terminus of the first lengthy horse-drawn railway in continental Europe, the 120 km line to Linz, of 1106 mm ...

Ceske Budejovice (Budweis) horse-drawn railway
Muzeum koněspřežky
Mánesova 10
2T38 Ceské Budìjovice, Czech Republic

Chvalšiny | Czech Republic
The Schwarzenberg Navigation was a system of canals incorporating navigable sections of some natural waterways which linked the River Vltava with the River Danube. The link between the two rivers, the first of which flows north to the Baltic, the second eastwards to the Black Sea, had been ...

Schwarzenberg Navigation Museum
Muzeum Schwarzenberského plavebního kanálu ve Chvalšinách
Chvalšiny 124
38208 Chvalšiny, Czech Republic

Jaromĕř | Czech Republic
Jaromĕř is an historic town built around a former imperial fortress guarding a crossing of the River Elbe. The railway museum was founded in 1996 by a non-profit organisation, and occupies an eight-bay semi-roundhouse locomotive depot of the early twentieth century. There is direct access from the ...

The railway museum at Jaromĕř
Železnični Muzeum Jaromĕř
Nádražni 227
55101 Jaromĕř, Czech Republic

Kopřivnice | Czech Republic
Kopřivnice in eastern Moravia is the site of the Tatra works, founded in Ignác Šustala (1822-81), which progressed from making horse-drawn coaches, to building railway wagons and coaches from 1881, motor cars from 1897, and commercial trucks from 1898. Production of railway vehicles ceased in the ...

Tatra Technical Museum
Technickŏ Muzeum Tatra
Záhumenni 367/1
74221 Kopřivnice, Czech Republic

Lužna u Rakovnika | Czech Republic
Lužna u Rakovnika, on the edge of the Kinvoklát forest, a little more than an hour’s journey west of Prague on the railway to Chomutov, has since 1997 been the location of the museum of the Czech Railways. It is located, adjacent to the passenger station, in a former locomotive depot of the ...

Czech Railways Museum
Železniční muzeum Českých
9 Kvĕtna
27051 Lužna u Rakovnika, Czech Republic

Mlada Boleslav | Czech Republic
The Skoda factory in Mlada Boleslav, 72 km N of Prague, traces it origins from 1895 when Vlaclav Laurin and Vlaclav Klement began to manufacture bicycles, soon progressing to motor cycles, and in 1905 to motor cars. The present factory, dating from 1945, the principal motor manufacturing plant in ...

Skoda Auto Museum
Vaclava Klementa 294
293-60 Mlada Boleslav, Czech Republic

Prague-Střešovice | Czech Republic
Prague’s museum of public transport occupies the Střešovice depot, constructed in 1909 to accommodate electric tramcars which had been operating in the city since 1896. The depot remained in use until 1992 and was designated an historical landmark in 1991. The museum, sponsored by the city transport ...

Prague Public Transport Museum
Muzeum MHD
Patočkova 460/4
16200 Prague, Czech Republic

Zlonice | Czech Republic
The composer and railway enthusiast Antonin Dvořák dedicated his first symphony to the village of Zlonice in Central Bohemia, 60 km north-west of Prague. The main emphasis of the railway museum, situated at the local station, is on railway freight operations. Most of the steam locomotives in the ...

Railway Museum
Železnični museum Zlonice
Lisovice 7
27371 Zlonice, Czech Republic

Copenhagen | Denmark
Holmen is the name given to the row of islands linked by bridges to the east of Copenhagen between Zealand and the northern tip of the island of Amager, most of which are artificial, having been created from the 1680s onwards by sinking the hulks of ships and filling in the areas around them with ...

Holmen Naval Base
Copenhagen, Denmark

Helsingor | Denmark
The museum of technology was established by a private trust in Copenhagen and moved to Helsingor in 1966, where it has been located in several premises but is now all on one site in buildings once occupied by an iron foundry. It has extensive collections on science and technology from the 18th ...

Danish Museum of Technology
Danmarks Tekniske Museet
Fabriksvej 25-27
3000 Helsingor, Denmark

Jystrup Midtsjaelland | Denmark
Denmark’s transport museum is run by a voluntary association, the Sporjevshistorisk Selskab,formed in 1965, whose site at Skjoldenaesholm, 20 km south-west of Roskilde has been open to the public since 1978. There were tramways in three Danish cities. A metre gauge system operated in Arhus ...

Tramway Museum at Skjoldenaesholm
Sporvejsmuseet Skjoldenaesholm
Skjoldenaesvej 107
4174 Jystrup Midtsjaelland, Denmark

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