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Regional route Asturias | Spain

It would be difficult to find something further from Spanish tourism clichés than the discovery of industrial heritage of Asturias, yet there is nothing more authentic and surprising: In the northern part of southern Europe – where the mountains kiss the sea and a green, ecologically diverse blanket ... more

Industrial heritage in Asturias. History of mining, iron and people, but also nature

It would be difficult to find something further from Spanish tourism clichés than the discovery of industrial heritage of Asturias, yet there is nothing more authentic and surprising: In the northern part of southern Europe – where the mountains kiss the sea and a green, ecologically diverse blanket covers the landscape – are the scattered footprints of a valuable mining legacy that connects us with neighbouring mining lands.

It all started at the end of the 18th century, when the future was bright with the Age of Enlightenment. “Brilliant” Jovellanos (a distinguished writer, lawyer and politician) was a major figure of the Enlightenment in Asturias. He sensed the great potential of the coal deposits under our soil and the transportation and infrastructure growth needed to exploit and export it. Administrative delays, wavering politicians and tariff policies slowed down the industrialization process. And although we cannot refer to this process as an English-style “industrial revolution,” it was similar to Franco-Belgian industrialization.

The detonator (pun intended) was the transfer of labour-union armourer workshops from Navarra and Euskadi to Asturias, a safer region that was further from the border. Asturias could supply the raw material required for production and provided a new labour force. As was common in our country at the time, the factories promoted by the crown put an end to the old putting out system and favoured functional integration, worker concentration and task centralization: with the Royal Factories of Oviedo (portable weapons) and Trubia (heavy weapons), Asturias dived head first into contemporary capitalism.

The influence of these changes soon took effect, and the mining basin came alive with the picks and shovels of thousands of men, adolescents and children who spent their days loading the mine carts of the first narrow-gauge railways that steamed through the valleys of the central mining basin (Caudal and Nalón rivers and its tributaries). Although minerals such as copper, cobalt, iron and mercury were also mined in Asturias, coal has always been the main mining focus in the region. And the first stories about coal extraction took place on the mountain: the system was based on our rugged terrain and large workforce, with few technological investments, and was sustained by the subsequent development of the mining pits (which followed the same pattern as the ones used in the great European flatlands).

World War I put Asturias on the global map of modern industry: our production capacity and neutral stance transformed us into a strategic region in a very convenient way. This brought about large and smart investments from well-established and experienced companies to open deep pits in the region. Spain was the metallic mining power of Europe, and Asturias was at the heart of the country’s coal industry: we are identified by that metaphor.

The roaring 20’s laid the foundations for the tumultuous 30’s, when the Spanish civil war put an end to a whirlwind of activity. During the first post-war autocracy, the need for energy self-sufficiency expanded our mining activity and the pits spread like wildfire: Old pits were made deeper and thousands of workers brought about a need for housing,  facilities and services (which largely explains the current appearance of this area of Asturias). The arrival of the 60’s came with the end of protectionism, triggering a recession that ended with the absorption of a large part of the old, private companies by a new public company called HUNOSA (Hulleras del Norte S.A., still in operation today). At the same time, the already obsolete method of traditional steel working transitioned into modern and comprehensive methods with the company ENSIDESA (Empresa Nacional Siderúrgica de España S.A., now Arcelor – Mittal). In summary, all of this set the foundations of a complex industrial scene that was dependent on coal and steel, combined with a communication deficit that has burdened our recent history.

Tourist resources linked to this mining history reflect how coal has influenced our industrial history: routes that take you through majestic valleys where you can discover how infrastructures coexist harmoniously alongside the rich natural environment (Asturias is home to six biosphere reserves and the first national park in Spain: Picos de Europa) and valuable cultural assets (UNESCO World Heritage Sites such as cave paintings from the Paleolithic age, Asturian monarchy art from the early middle ages and the Camino de Santiago [St. James Way], which originated in Oviedo). The area also features remnants of the important role of the Catholic Church and nobility during the modern age, and the lively return of locals who had emigrated to the Americas. But make sure you look beyond the museums and interpretation centres: they represent a turning point in the shared heritage of a hard-working society, in the landscapes steeped in history (such as the mining valleys) and in the green paths, which seem like railway stitches on the landscape. Yet the leading role was always played by the people, not by machines. It was always more about teamwork, union struggles and political fights than it was about a collection of tools or unique technology. That is how we know that these landmarks, which connect the landscape, its people and its communities together, will move you.

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ERIH Anchor Points

Gijón | Spain
Which engineer's design is that locomotive? Who were the workers who built it? Which driver handled it, and what people and goods did it carry? Questions like that make the Asturias Railway Museum such an exciting experience. Thus, any of the 140 rolling stock – including sixteen steam locomotives, ...
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Asturian Railway Museum
Museo del Ferrocarril de Asturias
Plaza Estación del Norte s/n
33212 Gijón, Spain

San Martín del Rey Aurelio | Spain
How does it feel to be a miner? In Pozo Sotón, visitors can find the answer in a literally up close manner, since the guided tour through the underground galleries is a sweaty experience and requires a good physical condition. The trip starts with putting on the right dress: change of underwear, ...
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Pozo Soton Mine
Linares, AS-17
33950 San Martín del Rey Aurelio, Spain

Members ERIH Association

Castrillón | Spain
In 1833, a Belgian company settled in Arnao with a radically innovative project in Asturias, a vertical pit was drilled for the extraction of coal below sea level. Today, its spectacular headframe is one of the most striking elements of the museum. The underwater mine continued working until the ...
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Arnao Mine and Museum
Museo de la Mina de Arnao
La mina, 7
33450 Castrillón, Spain

Asturias was one of the most important coal mining regions in Spain and the museum at El Entrego, 3 km south of Langreo, provides evidence of the role of the mining industry in the 19th and 20th centuries. The museum is located in a spectacular series of colliery structures. A steel headstock ...
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Asturian Museum of Mining and Industry
Musea de la Minería y de la Industria de Asturias
El Trabanquin
33940 El Entrego, Spain

Mining and the making of iron and steel were the principal economic activities from in Asturias from the mid-19th century until the closing years of the 20th century. The Museum of the Steel Industry (MUSI) complements the mining museum at El Entrego (MUMI) and uses a variety of modern techniques ...
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Asturian Museum of the Steel Industry
Museo de la Siderurgia de Asturias
Ciudad Tecnológica Valnalón C/ Hornos Altos s/n
33930 Langreo, Spain

Large-scale coal mining was the principal economic activity in the province of Asturias in northern Spain from the 1840s. Langreo, with a population of 43,000 is the fourth largest town in the province and lies close to the River Samuñ which extends 8 km from its source to its confluence with the ...
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Samuño Valley Mining Ecomuseum
Ecomseo Minero del valle de Samuño
El Cadavíu Ciañu
33909 Langreo, Spain

Navelgas | Spain
Although today gold is still being mined using industrial methods (in both Bueinás/Boinás, council of Belmonte de Miranda and in Carlés, council of Salas), the sport of gold panning is becoming increasingly popular in the streams in the west of the region. The historical aspects of this activity are ...
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Asturian Gold Museum
MOA Museo del Oro de Asturias
Barrio San Nicolás
33873 Navelgas, Spain

San Esteban de Pravia | Spain
San Esteban de Pravia, an old fishing village, now a marina, is an enclave in which its industrial past is still present. On the shores of the Cantabrian Sea, at the mouth of the “Nalón” River which separates the village of San Juan de la Arena from San Esteban de Pravia, is a location that still ...
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San Esteban de Pravia Coal Port
Paseo del muelle
33130 San Esteban de Pravia, Spain

San Salvador | Spain
The museum remembers the social and regional transformation that meant the settlement of a French company in this agricultural and livestock mountain area. From their industrial activity, it is interesting to visit the preserved old steel-making ovens as well as the galleries connected to the ...
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Ethnographic Museum of Quiros
Museo Ethnográfico de Quirós
Carretera General AS 229 - P.K. 8,4
33117 San Salvador, Spain

Santa Cruz de Mieres | Spain
Bustiello is one of the many mining villages in the province of Asturias, and is situated near Mieres, south of Oviedo, not far from Spain’s northern coast. It is a good example of industrial paternalism. The village was built between 1890 and 1925 by the mining company Sociedad Huellera Española on ...
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Bustiello Mining Village Information Centre
Centro de Interpretación del Poblado Minero de Bustiello
Bustiello
33612 Santa Cruz de Mieres, Spain

Santa Cruz de Mieres | Spain
The region of the Turón Valley was one of the most important coal mining areas in northern Spain. Numerous abandoned mines still tell of the former importance of this area and the old machinery and facilities form a kind of open-air museum. The best way to understand the mining landscape is to join ...
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Turón Valley
Valle de Turón
33610 Santa Cruz de Mieres, Spain

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