HISTORY OF SELECTED INDUSTRIES

APPL. OF POWER

From the Middle Ages until the late 19th century water and wind supplied the driving power for a huge variety of engines. Windmills dominated the flat lands of northwest Europe.
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BREWING OF BEER

Beer has been an enjoyable part of social interaction since ancient times and this fact is, naturally, reflected in the cultural landscape of Europe. In the Early Middle Ages ...
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COMMUNICATION

The final phase of industrialisation witnessed a revolution in communications: circulation figures for newspapers reached hitherto unknown heights, people were able ...
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CUTLERY

Hardly any other industry can trace its origins as far back in history as the European cutlery trade. Once it was widespread and primarily settled in places with ...
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HOUSING

The continuous improvement in the processing of iron and concrete during the Industrial Revolution opened up new and previously undreamt-of potentials for architects and engineers.
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INDUSTRY AND WAR

The origins of gun powder can be traced to China. There the oldest recipe for mixing charcoal, salpeter and sulphur dates from the year 1044. In the Far East though ...
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IRON AND STEEL

Two steps are needed to make iron and steel – the key materials of the industrial era - from iron ore. First, the ore has to be smelted in the blast furnace.
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LANDSCAPES

It was only around the end of the 19th century, with the second wave of industrialisation, that exposed mining tips and soot-ridden workshops, endless terraces of housing ...
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LEISURE INDUSTRY

The Industrial Revolution resulted in more and more smokestacks shooting out of the ground and a huge increase in factories, coal mines and steelworks; villages merged ...
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MINING

Coal from European and American collieries was the universal fuel during the Industrial Revolution. Nonetheless technical inventions in mining played a relatively insignificant role.
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PAPER

It all began in China. Comparatively early, the Chinese empire started to build up a large bureaucracy. This was probably why in the 2nd century BC the process of papermaking ...
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PRODUCTION

Domestic handmade textile production was typical for the pre-industrial age. The father sat at the loom and the women of the family were responsible for spinning the yarn.
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SALT

For thousands of years salt has been a very important material: it was not just used for seasoning, but was needed much more as a preservative. Before ice boxes, fridges and ...
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TEXTILES

The thousands of rattling bobbins on the spinning frames in cotton factories have become a byword for industrialisation. British cotton mills were indeed the forerunners.
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TRANSPORT

During the early years of the Industrial Revolution there was a radical change in transportation. The arrival of pounding steamships and steam locomotives ...
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WATER

No European country has as close a relationship to water than the Netherlands. For this reason water construction technology developed here first. At the start ...
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