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Industrial Revolution | Europe

The Industrial Revolution did not arrive overnight but slowly spread all over the continent. The same holds true for the British Isles. Starting around 1750 Great Britain was to set the pace in Europe for the next century or so, thanks to its lucrative agrarian industry, wealthy landowners and an astonishing number of creative inventors. First on the scene were spinning machines. These were followed by mechanical looms and before long textile factories were shooting up all over the place.

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Industrial History I Belgium

The industrial revolution on the European continent began in Belgium. Before that, the country had traditionally enjoyed a vibrant trading tradition for many years. Textile production flourished in Flanders, iron processing in Walloon and there were large coal reserves in the south and east of the country.

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Industrial History | Germany

The first German textile factory was built in 1784 in Ratingen near Düsseldorf. It was called "Cromford" after its English model and was very much on its own in Germany. Since the country was divided into so many small states and traditional guild privileges were abolished relatively late it was not until after 1800 that the process of ...

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Industrial History I Great Britain

The Industrial Revolution, which brought so many chimney stacks and soot-ridden workers' housing settlements to Europe, began on the fields of British farmers. In the 18th century landowners were able to increase agrarian production to such an extent that they could meet the nutritional requirements of the country on a long term ...

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Industrial History | France

The course of industrialisation in France was so idiosyncratic that for a long time people wondered whether an industrial revolution had ever taken place in the country. One of the main reasons for this was that the "Grande Nation" did not possess as large and accessible natural supplies of coal and iron ore as countries like Great Britain or Belgium. Coal, in particular, was always ...

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Industrial History | Luxembourg

Who would have thought that this small country in the heart of Europe was once one of the largest iron producers in the world? Whereas the north of Luxemburg is mostly agricultural, industrial history has left its traces in the south. Long before the country's capital became a leading financial and administrative centre there were textile ...

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Industrial History | Netherlands

The industrialisation of the Netherlands did not simultaneously result in smoking chimneystacks as in Britain, Belgium and Germany. In the mid 18th century Amsterdam was still a wealthy trade and finance centre, farmers lived from potatoes, flowers and cheese, whilst trades like shipbuilding and fishing were in decline...

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Industrial History | Norway

Well into the 19th century Norway was still a pre-industrial country with a poorly-developed infrastructure and transportation system. 90 per cent of the population lived as self-sufficient fishers and farmers. For centuries fishing was the country’s main source of income.
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Industrial History | Spain

Industrialization of Spain took place geographically very different. Three regions were the pioneers: Euskadi (Basque Country), Asturias and Catalonia. In the Basque Country, the steel industry was concentrated. Reason was the presence of iron ore with low phosphorus content, which was mainly exported to England. In the 17th Century ...
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