Rumelange lies to the south of the Duchy of Luxembourg near the French border, in an area rich in iron ores, called ‘les roches rouges’ (the red rocks). Large-scale mining of ore began with a concession granted to Charles Joseph Collardt, owner of an ironworks at Dommeldange, in 1824. The scale of extraction increased after the opening of a railway in 1862, and mining in the area continued until 1978.
The Kirchberg/Walert mine began operation in 1898, worked until 1964, and in 1973 was opened as a museum that was substantially enlarged in the late 1990s. Visitors are taken on a train into an extensive adit where former miners explain what can be seen. The highlight of the 105 minute tour is a display of working methods in the Kirchberg Chamber, 90 m below the surface. The museum holds a collection of mining machinery, and a range of calcining kilns stands on its boundary.