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European Themeroute | Transport and Communication

During the early years of the Industrial Revolution there was a radical change in transportation. The arrival of pounding steamships and steam locomotives gave a huge boost to industrialisation. The change began on the canals which, for centuries, had proved to be the best means of transporting goods. In ... more

Icon: Transport and CommunicationThe tracks of the Industrial Revolution. European Theme Route Transport

During the early years of the Industrial Revolution there was a radical change in transportation. The arrival of pounding steamships and steam locomotives gave a huge boost to industrialisation. The change began on the canals which, for centuries, had proved to be the best means of transporting goods. In 1761, the Bridgewater canal was completed in one of the birthplaces of the industrial age, the British textile area Lancashire; from then on, the route supplied the booming city of Manchester with coal. Other canals followed quickly, enabling coal to be transported to textile factories and iron mills in all the major cities in Britain.

The steam engine triggered off the revolution in transport. The first experiments with the technology date back to 1690, when a French physicist by the name of Dennis Papin designed a steam-driven boat with bucket wheels. But it was not until a century later that practical experiments took place both in France and Britain. Nevertheless it was an American, Robert Fulton, who succeeded in building the first steamship – even before the first locomotive took to the rails. The "Clermont", a flat bottomed boat with two huge bucket wheels and a steam engine, was launched into the Hudson River in 1807.

In 1827 an Austrian forest engineer, Joseph Ressel, took out a patent on a screw propeller. This only really became commercially viable in 1845 after the "Great Britain" had crossed the Atlantic, driven by a ca. 5 metre screw propeller. About the same time people stopped building ships made of wood, because iron hulls were cheaper to construct, could take greater loads and withstand rough seas more easily. A gigantic new market had been opened for the ironmaking industry.

Railways gave the other great boost to industrialisation. They were first used in collieries, where goods wagons ran on wooden rails. About the middle of the 18th century horse-driven railways were running, both above and below the surface, on rails completely made of iron. The first steam-driven wagon was made by the French artillery officer, Nicolas Cugnot around 1770. He was followed by the Englishman, Richard Trevithick, who set his vehicle on rails. In 1803 the first colliery locomotive went into action in Coalbrookdale. This gave rise to George Stephenson's classic steam engine: the front part consisted of a large steam boiler, behind which worked the driver and the stoker; within the engine were a huge amount of horizontal heating pipes, and the steam was blown out at the front. Steam cylinders and pistons were mounted beneath on either side in order to drive the wheels directly.

Stephenson also built the first railway line in England. In 1825, the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened, and the subsequent railway boom resulted in an explosive growth in the whole of the British economy.

Just as railway mania was beginning to die down, a new development began: the motorcar engine. This revolutionised road traffic completely - primarily, however, on the continent and in the USA. Inventors started by trying to eradicate the disadvantages of the steam engine, which lost a lot of energy because the steam was created in the boiler but used separately in the operating cylinder. Therefore people started experimenting with burning the fuel directly in the operating cylinder. The obvious fuel seemed to be gas (produced from coal), for this was used for street lighting in many places. The first working gas engine was built in 1859 by a citizen of Luxembourg, Étienne Lenoir. He blew an explosive mixture of gas and air into a horizontal cylinder, alternately left and right of the pistons, and ignited it with an electric spark. Since both the mechanical stress and the fuel consumption were very high, the world had to wait until 1876 when the first really marketable internal combustion engine was launched by the German travelling salesman, Nicolaus August Otto.

Otto’s époque-making idea was the four-stroke principal. On the first stroke (intake) the piston descends, and a mixture of gas and air is sucked into the cylinder; on the second (compression), the piston rises and compresses the fuel-air mixture. This is then ignited electrically, and the resulting expansion of burning gases drives the piston downwards (power). On the fourth stroke (exhaust), the piston rises once again and pushes the waste fuel from the cylinder.

Rudolf Diesel's engine, however, was even more efficient. The German engineer based his findings on those of the French physician, Sadi Carnot. His motor sucked in pure air into the cylinder. And because this can be more highly compressed than a mixture, it heats up strongly. Only then is the fuel injected. Because of the high temperature, this ignites automatically, thereby driving the piston in the same way as in the Otto motor. Diesel's engine was presented to the world in 1897, and proved to be both durable and economic. It was possible to get several thousand horsepower from it. The result was that it replaced steam engines in small power stations and was soon built into ships. That said, the high compression demanded a robust construction, so that for a long time the motor was too heavy for locomotives and motor cars.

In the 1870s it was discovered that oil products could be used as engine fuel, because they could easily be gasified: the heavy oil components in diesel motors, the light ones in Otto motors. Now that an alternative had been found to coal gas, people were no longer dependent on a stationary gas connection. There were no more obstacles in the way of the triumphant march of new, mobile internal combustion engines.

Otto’s four-stroke motor was first put into motion in 1885 in a three wheel car made by the Mannheim constructor, Carl Benz; and a wooden motorbike made by Gottfried Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach. In the following years these two German engineers presented the first four-wheeled motorcar, which they had developed from a coach. It was driven by a single-cylinder motor with a 0.5 litre piston displacement and a performance of 1.5 horsepower. The vehicle became commercially viable on the French market where large engineering and assembly works had taken over motor manufacturing. Thanks to producers like Peugeot, Panhard & Levassor and Renault the first motorcar boom in France occurred at the turn of the century.

Further improvements soon made driving more comfortable. In 1888 an Irish vet, John Boyd Dunlop, invented rubber tyres (at first for bicycles); in 1902 the German company Robert Bosch invented sparkplugs, and in 1911 in the USA, an electric starting motor. Maybach’s 1901 "Mercedes" model contained a pioneering example of a motorcar engine: a four-cylinder, four-stroke 35 hp engine which could accelerate the car to a speed of 72 km an hour.

Motorcar production had already become an important manufacturing branch in industrial countries when Henry Ford conquered the mass market. He deliberately set out to build a cheap everyday car for farmers in the mid-west, the Ford model T. Sales rose like lightning, bringing with them revolutionary methods of production. As early as 1911 assembly line production began in the British Ford works in Manchester. In 1914 the complete Ford factory in Detroit was operating on the assembly line system.

Swindon | United Kingdom
Large objects from the collection of the National Museum of Science & Industry that cannot be displayed at South Kensingon are held at the former RAF base at Wroughton, Wiltshire, in six hangars and a research store built in 1993. Aircraft held there include a Boeing 247 Electra of 1934, one of ...
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Science Museum
Wroughton
SN4 9LT Swindon, United Kingdom

Swindon, on the main line of the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London, was the location of the company’s principal locomotive and carriage works, which at its peak in the early 20th century employed 14,000 people. Alongside the railway is the village for works employees designed by ...
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STEAM - Museum of the Great Western Railway | Railway Village
Kemble Drive
SN2 2TA Swindon, United Kingdom

Tavistock | United Kingdom
Time has stood still at Morwellham Quay. The streets are full of servants and merchants in Victorian costume and miners are hurrying towards their shift. In the busy assay office copper ore from the surrounding mines is checked and sorted according to quality. The whole place is buzzing with ...
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Morwellham Quay
Morwellham Quay
PL19 8JL Tavistock, United Kingdom

Telford | United Kingdom
The canal wharf at Wappenshall north of Telford is one of the most significant in the history of inland waterways in England. It was at first simply a passing place on the Shrewsbury Canal, completed in 1797, extending 26 km. from a basin in the East Shropshire Coalfield to Shrewsbury, the county ...
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Wappenshall Wharf
TF6 6DE Telford, United Kingdom

Telford-Ironbridge | United Kingdom
You’ll need to exchange some money at the bank when you arrive, because the coins they used in 1900 were very different to the ones in your pocket today. But even a few pennies can buy quite a lot in 1900; a bag of boiled sweets, a pork pie, a glass of beer. The recreation of Victorian life here ...
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Blists Hill Victorian Town
Legges Way Madeley
TF7 5DU Telford, United Kingdom

Tywyn | United Kingdom
The Talyllyn Railway claims to be world’s first preserved railway and it certainly set the pattern for the heritage railway movement in the United Kingdom. It owes its origin to the Bryn Eglwys slate quarry, once employed 300 people and produced 300,000 tons of slate and slabs between the 1840s and ...
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Talyllyn Railway Co
Wharf Station
LL36 9EY Tywyn, United Kingdom

Uckfield | United Kingdom
The Bluebell Railway in Sussex was one of the United Kingdom’s first heritage railways. It operates on a section of the Lewes & East Grinstead Railway, part of the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway, which opened in 1882. It was closed in 1958 and re-opened as a heritage railway in 1960. For ...
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Bluebell Railway
Station Approach
TN22 3QL Uckfield, United Kingdom

Warrington | United Kingdom
The transporter bridge across the River Mersey at Warrington, built in 1915-16, connected two parts of the chemical and soap plant of Joseph Crosfield & Sons, and was the second to be built by the company. The first, completed in 1905, was demolished in the early 1960s. The remaining bridge has a ...
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Warrington Transporter Bridge
WA1 1NA Warrington, United Kingdom

Weybridge | United Kingdom
Brooklands epitomises some significant features of the British aircraft and motor car industries, and of motor sport. An embanked concrete racetrack for motorcars was built by the landowner Hugh Locke King in 1907. The track was crossed by a steel bridge, symbolising the two new constructional ...
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Brooklands Museum
Brooklands Road
KT13 0QN Weybridge, United Kingdom

Wigan | United Kingdom
Situated on the banks of the Leeds-Liverpool Canal, Wigan Pier is one of the northwest’s favourite visitor attractions.No visit to Wigan Pier would be complete without seeing the Trencherfield Mill Engine in action. Our Engine is the world’s largest original working mill steam engine and is located ...
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Wigan Pier
Wallgate
WN3 4EU Wigan, United Kingdom

Yeovil | United Kingdom
The name of Haynes Publishing of Sparkford in rural Somerset is synonymous in the United Kingdom with maintenance manuals for cars, and the company displays a collection of more than 400 motor vehicles near its headquarters. It includes many examples of élite marques, such as Bentley, Rolls Royce ...
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Haynes International Motor Museum
Sparkford
BA22 7LH Yeovil, United Kingdom

York | United Kingdom
York is one of the principal railway junctions in England, with an impressive station with curving glass and iron train sheds of 1872-7, and the imposing early 20th century headquarters building of the former North Eastern Railway. The National Railway Museum is located in onetime railway ...
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National Railway Museum
Leeman Road
YO26 4XJ York, United Kingdom

Vatican City | Vatican City
The Città del Vaticano (Vatican City) the global centre of the Roman Catholic church, is a 44 ha enclave within the city of Rome whose status is defined by the Lateran Treaty of 1929. One of its links with the outside world is a 1.27 km railway from the San Pietro station of the Italian state ...
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Vatican City Railway Station
Vatican City, Vatican City