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European Theme Routes

Such as "The treasures of the Earth": what, where, when and how were they extracted from the ground? Or "Textile manufacturing": the milestones along the way from fibre to factory. Or "Transport and Communication": retracing the tracks of the industrial revolution.

Theme Routes take up specific questions relating to European industrial history and reveal potential links between radically different industrial monuments all over Europe. The result is a "circuit diagram" of the common routes of European industrial heritage.


The thousands of rattling bobbins on the spinning frames in cotton factories have become a byword for industrialisation.
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Coal from European and American collieries was the universal fuel during the Industrial Revolution.
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Iron and Steel

Two steps are needed to make iron and steel – the key materials of the industrial era - from iron ore.
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Up to the 19th century paper was produced exclusively by hand. The first step on the way to  ...
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Salt is an essential substance that changed with the industrialization from a luxury articel to a cheap everyday product.
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Domestic handmade textile production was typical for the pre-industrial age.
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From the Middle Ages until the late 19th century water and wind supplied the driving power for a huge variety of engines.
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Transport & Communication

During the early years of the Industrial Revolution there was a radical change in transportation.
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No European country has as close a relationship to water than the Netherlands.
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Industry and War

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Housing & Architecture

The continuous improvement in the processing of iron and concrete during ...
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Service & Leisure Industry

The forerunners in France, from around the middle of the 19th century, were the large ...
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Industrial Landscapes

It was only around the end of the 19th century, with the second wave of industrialisation, ...
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